Friday, June 18, 2010

MailTips Exchange 2010

Understanding MailTips

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd297974(v=exchg.141).aspx

Automatic replies:
When you know that someone is on vacation before you send them a message, you won't waste your time writing it, and they won't have to read as many messages when they get back.


Large Recipient List:
When sending an e-mail to a large number of recipients {DL}, a MailTip will warn you of the amount of users you are about to send the e-mail to. This will probably make you think twice before sending an e-mail to 438 people asking if they know how to get to the closest GAP store!


BCC reply-to-all protection:
It will warn you when you are about to reply-to-all on a message that was BCCed to you. This can often prevent some rather embarrassing situations. After all, BCCed recipients are normally meant to stay invisible to the rest of the recipients.


External recipients:
This MailTip lets you know whether the recipient's mailbox has enough capacity to receive your message. That is, somebody whose email address is outside your organization.

Full mailbox:
This MailTip lets you know whether the recipient's mailbox has enough capacity to receive your message.

Oversized messages:
A warning will be displayed if the message you are composing exceeds size limits set by your Administrator.

Moderated group:
Moderated groups is another feature in Exchange 2010 that allows Administrators to control mail flow to specific distribution groups or mailboxes. This MailTip will inform you that you are sending to a moderated group or mailbox, meaning your e-mail will not be delivered until someone approves it.

Restricted recipient:
If you don't have permission to send to a mailbox or distribution list, MailTips will tell you right up front.

Invalid recipient:
This MailTip informs you whether the mailbox to which you are about to send an e-mail still exists. In Exchange 2007 and earlier, if you send an e-mail to someone whose mailbox has been disabled or deleted, you'd get a non-delivery report. This MailTip helps prevent that, for example it is particularly useful when trying to send an e-mail to someone who left the company.

Custom MailTip:
Administrators and group owners can set custom MailTips.

Configuring MailTips:
Run below CMDlets on Exchange Management Shell to gather ORG settings.
Get-OrganizationConfig | fl *mailtips*

Enable or Disable MailTips.
Below the Cmdlet
Set-OrganizationConfig -MailTipsAllTipsEnabled $true


Configure the large audience size for MailTips.
Set-OrganizationConfig -MailTipsLargeAudienceThreshold 15


Enable or disable the External Recipients MailTips
Set-OrganizationConfig –MailTipsExternalRecipientsTipsEnabled $True

 

Enable or disable MailTips that rely on mailbox data
Set-OrganizationConfig -MailTipsMailboxSourcedTipsEnabled $true


Configure Group Metrics
Set-MailboxServer EX10-MB01 -GroupMetricsGenerationEnabled $true

Wednesday, June 16, 2010

Transport Pipeline 2010

Transport pipeline is a collection of Exchange 2010 server roles, connections, components, and queues that work together to route all messages to the categorizer on a Hub Transport server inside the organization. Messages from outside the organization enter the transport pipeline through a Receive connector on an Edge Transport server and are then routed to a Hub Transport server inside the organization. Messages inside the organization enter the transport pipeline on a Hub Transport server in one of the below ways:

• Through a Receive connector.
• From the Pickup directory or the Replay directory.
• By direct placement in the Submission queue by the store driver.
• Through agent submission

First all messages must be categorized on the HUB before message route and delivered. after categorized every message delivered to the mailbox in the same active directory site, HUB server on which the message was categorized to the recipient in the different active directory site or forest.

Following component is working on transport process:

SMTP Receive:
When messages are received at a Hub Transport server from Edge server , transport rules are applied and, if anti-spam and antivirus agents are configured, these agents provide an additional layer of anti-spam and antivirus protection. SMTP session start with series of the events that work together. After message has passed completely through SMTP receive and is not rejected by receive events and it put in the Submission queue.

Submission
Submission is the process of putting messages into the Submission queue. The categorizer picks up one message at a time for categorization through SMTP submission, Pickup directory, Store drive and by Submission by an agent.

Categorizer
it picks up one message at a time from submission queue. After categorized message is put on the delivery queue. On HUB transport server the categorizer completes recipient resolution, expansion, bifurcation , Routing resolution and Content conversion. After categorized message put in to mailbox delivery queue of the local mailbox by using the store drive. Remote delivery message to the remote recipient through SMTP connector.



There are some key components to Exchange 2010 routing :

Active Directory Sites – Used as a routing boundary for Hub Transport Servers
AD IP Site Links – Define logical routing paths and least cost routes between hub transports in different AD Sites.
Send Connectors – Primary used to route to external SMTP address space.
Routing Groups – Used as a routing boundary for Exchange 2003.
Routing Group Connectors – Define logical routing paths between Exchange 2010 and Exchange 2003.
Microsoft Exchange Transport Service – The Simple Mail Transfer provider for Exchange 2010 for inbound and outbound mail
Microsoft Exchange Active Directory Topology Service – Service responsible for locating and querying the Global Catalog and Domain Controller servers.
Routing Tables – A map of the topology used by the routing component to make routing decisions.
DNS – Exchange 2010 uses both a standard and enhanced DNS client to perform next hop name resolution. Enhanced DNS supports load-balancing for transport server roles.
SMTP – Protocol used for communications between transport server roles
RPC – Remote Procedure Calls are used by hub transport servers to submit mail to Mailbox Server roles within the same active directory site.



The files available for download are:

Exchange2010_HubTransportExtensibility.pdf
Exchange2010_HubTransportRoleArchitecture.pdf
Download here: http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?displaylang=en&FamilyID=6eb8c09a-6ea4-442a-9faa-de33265ceb84&utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+MicrosoftDownloadCenter+%28Microsoft+Download+Center%29#filelist

Tuesday, June 15, 2010

Back Pressure Exchange 2010

A new feature of Exchange Server 2010 that helps prevent the inundation of system resources of an Exchange Server 2010 transport server and Edge Transport servers is back pressure.
Exchange transport can detect when critical resources, such as available hard disk space and memory, are under pressure, and take action in an attempt to prevent service unavailability.

Back pressure prevents the system resources from being completely snowed under, and Exchange tries to deliver the existing messages. When utilization of the system resource returns to a normal level, the Exchange server gradually resumes normal operation.

In Exchange Server 2007, when a Hub Transport or Edge Transport server is under resource pressure, it rejects incoming connections. In Exchange 2010, incoming connections are accepted, but incoming messages over those connections are either accepted at a slower rate or are rejected. When an SMTP host attempts to make a connection to a Hub Transport or Edge Transport server that's in back pressure, the connection will succeed but when the host issues the MAIL FROM command to submit a message, depending on the resource that's under pressure, Exchange either delays the acknowledgement to the MAIL FROM command or rejects it.

Resources Monitored
The following system resources are monitored as part of the back pressure feature:
• Free space on the hard disk that stores the message queue database.
• Free space on the hard disk that stores the message queue database transaction logs.
• The number of uncommitted message queue database transactions that exist in memory.
• The memory that's used by the EdgeTransport.exe process.
• The memory that's used by all other processes.

Each monitored system resource on a Hub Transport server or Edge Transport server; the three levels (Normal, Medium and High) of resource utilization are applied.

For example, by default, the message queue database is stored at :\Program Files\Microsoft\ExchangeServer\TransportRoles\data\Queue.

By default, the high level of hard disk drive space utilization is calculated by using the following formula: 100*(hard disk drive size - 4 GB) / hard disk drive size. As the available free hard disk drive space decreases, the hard disk drive utilization increases. So, we require at least 4GB free space on the hard disk drive containing message queue database. Otherwise, the hard disk drive space utilization will reach the high level and Exchange stops accepting any new connections and messages.

EdgeTransport.exe.config file contains a DatabaseCheckPointDepthMax parameter that has a default value of 512 MB. This parameter controls the total allowed size of all uncommitted transaction logs that exist on the hard disk. This parameter is used in the formula that calculates hard disk utilization.
Message queue database is kept in memory until change can be committed to a transaction log. Those message queue database transaction that kept in memory are known as version bucket The number of the version buckets may be increase to high volume of incoming message problem hard drive performance. If the message with large attachment, it can be separated in to multiple batches and called batch points. If the buckets or batch point are under pressure exchange server start throttling for incoming connection, exchange will introduce the delay to the MAIL FROm commands.

Exchange 2010 keeps a history of version bucket and batch point resource utilization. If the resource utilization doesn't go down to normal level for a specific number of polling intervals, known as the history depth, Exchange will stop the tarpitting delay and start rejecting incoming messages until the resource utilization goes back to normal. By default, the history depths for version buckets and batch points are in 10 and 300 polling intervals respectively.

For more details :
http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb201658.aspx

Understanding Address Rewriting

Exchange Server Address Rewrite feature. This feature allows Exchange Administrators to centrally rewrite outgoing SMTP addresses.
For Exchange Server 2003 Address Rewrite additional tool available .In Exchange Server 2007/2010, Address rewrite is natively integrated into the core messaging system in the form of Exchange Management Shell CMD'lets.
Exchange Address Rewrite is the process of rewriting e-mail addresses for all outgoing messages on a special SMTP virtual server (for Exchange Server 2003). Exchange Address Rewrite is especially used in merger or acquisition scenarios where two Exchange organizations are to be merged into one but, until these two organizations are completely merged, every organization uses its own SMTP namespace while for all outgoing SMTP messages the new or unique SMTP address space is used.
We can user address rewriting to external recipients of messaged from your company exchange 2010. It is useful for organization that use third party vendors to providing email support. Customer expect email messages to come from the organization not from third party vendor. It is also use in merger or acquisition scenarios where two Exchange organizations are to be merged into one but, until these two organizations are completely merged, every organization uses its own SMTP namespace while for all outgoing SMTP messages the new or unique SMTP address space is used. You can configure address rewriting agent on the Receive connector and send connector on the HUB/Edge server role.

For Exchange 2003 you can download tool called EXARCFG.EXE from Microsoft:
http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?familyid=c29487ee-ef0a-49f6-a205-f23e0a98f794&displaylang=en

After downloading the tool, simply extract the download package and open a command prompt to use the EXARCFG tool, as shown in the following screenshot.


The EXARCFG parameter –E enables Address Rewrite while the parameter –D disables Exchange Address Rewrite. The only parameter you should pay more attention to is the –V parameter which specifies which Exchange Virtual SMTP Server should be used.

Exchange Address Rewrite in Exchange Server 2007/2010 is already installed with the core messaging subsystem but is not enabled. You have to use the Exchange Management Shell to activate Exchange Address Rewrite.

With Exchange Server 2007/2010 Address Rewrite you can rewrite SMTP addresses based on:
• Single Address
• Single Domain
• Multiple Subdomains

How to enable Address Rewrite for a Single Address

New-AddressRewriteEntry -name "dinesh@training-cgroup.com to dinesh@dgroup.com" -InternalAddress dinesh@training-cgroup.com -ExternalAddress dinesh@dgroup.com Single Domain

How to enable Address Rewrite for a Single domain
New-AddressRewriteEntry -name "training-cgroup to dgroup" -InternalAddress training-cgroup.com -ExternalAddress dgroup.com

How to display Address Rewrite entries after configuring some entries

Get- AddressRewriteEntry

You can also use address rewriter with in a organization when you have multiple subdomain like in your organization Dgroup.com, if outbond message from us.Dgroup.com, europ.Dgroup.com and asia.Dgroup.com domains are rewritten to appear as if they all originate from single Dgroup.com domain, all message are rewritten as they pass through Edge server that provide SMTP connectvity the whole organization and internet.

When orgazations merge or are acquired. A acquired company may continue to run as a separate business unit, but email administrator can use address rewriting to make the two organizations appear as if theyare one integrated organization. Dgroup, ltd wants all outbound messages from the Cgroup's exchange organization to appear as if they originate from Dgroup, all messages from both organization are sent through the Edge transport servers at Dgroup, ltd, where all messages are rewritten from abc@Cgroup.co to abc@Dgroup.com

Address rewriting agents rewrite e-mail addresses by rewriting the SMTP headers on e-mail messages that are sent and received by an Edge Transport server. Address Rewriting agents typically rewrite outbound messages because the organization wants to hide the internal domains and subdomains as effectively as possible and present a single external domain to the Internet. Address Rewriting agents typically rewrite inbound messages to route those messages to their intended recipients. For these reasons, Address Rewriting agents rewrite several SMTP header fields on outbound e-mail messages. Address Rewriting agents rewrite only one SMTP header field on inbound e-mail messages.

Address Rewriting agents don't rewrite several SMTP header fields, because address rewriting would break SMTP functionality. For example, changing these SMTP headers could affect message loop detection.

When an e-mail message is outbound from the Exchange 2010 organization, outbound-only address rewriting involves modification of the sender SMTP address only. The Address Rewriting agent is configured only on the Send connector on the Edge Transport server.

* The resulting email address must be unique across the organization.
* A proxy address must be configured on each mailbox that matches the rewritten email address.
* You can use wildcard only in the internal domain, no characters can be in front of the wildcard.

Bidirectional address rewriting modifies the sender SMTP address on e-mail messages that are leaving the Exchange organization and the recipient SMTP address on e-mail messages that are entering the Exchange organization.

When you flatten internal subdomains into a single external domain, you must consider the following factors:

* Unique aliases are required.
* Proxy addresses are required {If you're rewriting e-mail from a non-Exchange 2010 e-mail system, you 
   must create Active Directory mail-enabled contacts for each e-mail address in the non-Exchange 2010 e-
   mail address that's being rewritten.}

Make sure that every e-mail alias that exists across all subdomains is unique. Exchange 2010 doesn't check to verify that every e-mail alias that can be rewritten to a single domain is unique. Contacts may be required.

Please note:

Exchange Address Rewrite is NOT used for sending internal E-Mails from one Exchange Server to another in your Exchange Organization. There is one exception from this rule: All native SMTP clients like Mozilla, Thunderbird or Microsoft Outlook Express use Exchange Address Rewite because these messages will be sent directly to the SMTP driver.

Understanding Client Throttling Policies

Exchange 2010 introduced a new feature called Client Throttling. Throttling concept of Exchange 2010 allows an administrator to control how much activity a user is able to perform against an Exchange 2010 client access server. In daily basis we are troubleshooting exchange performance issue and using Exchange server user monitor {Exmon} tool. And find the some users who are utilizing the server more then other users.

Client throttling helps us the following:

• Users are not intentionally misusing the system
• Avoid any unplanned CAS traffic into our system
• Users of various connectivity methods are sharing resources proportionally.

By default, Exchange 2010 uses the default client throttling policies to track the bandwidth used by Microsoft Exchange users. You can either modify or create client throttling policy as per your need.

The four PowerShell cmdlets that we can use to defining policies include:
• New-ThrottlingPolicy
• Remove-ThrottlingPolicy
• Get-ThrottlingPolicy
• Set-ThrottlingPolicy

Execute the below command to read the settings of the exiting policy, By default the client throttling policy has its IsDefault parameter set to true

• Get-ThrottlingPolicy | where-object {$_.IsDefault -eq $true}



Exchange ActiveSync, IMAP, POP, Exchange Web Services, OWA & Windows Powershell are the components covered by the default throttling policy. The components are governed by four policy parameters.

• MaxConcurrency: Maximum concurrent connections a user can have against a 2010 server at a given time.
• PercentTimeInCAS: Percentage of a minute that can be spent running CAS code.
• PercentTimeInAD: Percentage of a minute that can be spent running LDAP requests.
• PercentTimeInMailboxRPC: Percentage of a minute that can be spent running mailbox RPC requests.

Creating a New throttling policy:

We can use below Powershell command for creating new throttling:

New-ThrottlingPolicy -Name ClientThrPolicy -OWAMaxConcurrency 80 -OWAPercentTimeInCAS $null;

Assigning a new throttling policy to user

We can use the cmdlet Set-Mailbox to assign the new throttling policy.
The command is :

$variable = Get-ThrottlingPolicy ClientThrPolicy; and then hit Enter
Set-Mailbox -Identity dinesh -ThrottlingPolicy $variable; hit Enter

Now we can verify the properties of the user dinesh by using the command below:

Get-Mailbox -Identity dinesh |fl

Removing Throttling policies:

For removing throttling we can use below cmdlet:

Remove-ThrottlingPolicy ClientThrPolicy

Monday, June 7, 2010

Delete Storage Group {system attendant and system mailboxes only 2003}

• We can delete first storage group, however you must perform the following steps before do that.

1. First move all the mailboxes in the first storage group to another storage group,
2. Then need to move System Attendant Mailbox. For more information about how to do that, refer to the following steps.

Moving the Exchange System Attendant Mailbox

The System Attendant mailbox on an Exchange server is used by the system for passing messages such as Server Monitor notifications. This account is created in the First Storage Group\Mailbox Store server name database when Exchange is installed. You cannot delete this database until the System Attendant mailbox has been moved to a different database on the same server.

You may not need to move the System Attendant mailbox to accomplish your purpose. If you simply want to rename storage groups and databases, right-click the names in Exchange System Manager and then click rename. If you want to move the database that contains the System Attendant mailbox to another server or storage group, you must move the mailbox. If you do not move the mailbox, notifications and other messages handled by the System Attendant are not sent, although most other server functions will not be affected.

After you move the System Attendant mailbox, you cannot move it back to the original database unless you physically delete and then re-create the original database.

Before you move the mailbox, make a backup of the current database.

To move the System Attendant mailbox:

1. Change the homeMDB attribute of the Microsoft System Attendant object for the server to reflect the new database. For example, if the homeMDB value is CN=Mailbox Store (SERVER1),CN=First Storage Group,CN=InformationStore,CN=SERVER1,CN=Servers,CN=First Administrative Group,CN=Administrative Groups,CN=First Organization,CN=Microsoft Exchange,CN=Services,CN=Configuration,DC=mycompany,DC=com and you want to move the
System Attendant mailbox to a database called DB2 in storage group Second, change the homeMDB value to
CN=DB2,CN=Second,CN=InformationStore,CN=SERVER1,CN=Servers,CN=First Administrative Group,CN=Administrative Groups,CN=First Organization,CN=Microsoft Exchange,CN=Services,CN=Configuration,DC=mycompany,DC=com The System Attendant object for each Exchange server is located in the Configuration container of your Active Directory forest. The path to it is: CN=Microsoft System Attendant,CN=[server name],CN=Servers,CN=[administrative group name],CN=Administrative Groups,CN=[organization name],CN=Microsoft Exchange,CN=Services,CN=Configuration

2. Stop and restart all Exchange services.

3. Run the Mailbox Cleanup Agent against the original database. To access the Cleanup Agent, right-click the Mailboxes object for the database. After you run the Cleanup Agent, the original System Attendant mailbox should have a red X next to it, indicating that it is no longer connected to an Active Directory object.

4. Right-click the disconnected System Attendant mailbox, and then permanently delete the mailbox. Warning After you complete this step, you cannot move the mailbox back to the original database. To move it back, you must delete the physical database files, and allow a fresh database to be re-created.

5. From a client workstation, send a mail message to the System Attendant mailbox, requesting a delivery receipt. Address the message in the following format, including use of the square brackets: [SMTP ERVERNAME-SA@domain.com]

6. Monitor the Application Log carefully for errors relating to the System Attendant mailbox.

3. Replicate any public folders in the first storage group to another server.

=================================================
Or

• 1. Change the homeMDB attribute of the Microsoft System Attendant object for the server to reflect the new database. For example, if the  homeMDB value is
CN=Mailbox Store (SERVER1),CN=First Storage Group,CN=InformationStore,CN=SERVER1,CN=Servers,CN=First  Administrative  Group,CN=Administrative Groups,CN=First Organization,CN=Microsoft
Exchange,CN=Services,CN=Configuration,DC=mycompany,DC=com
and you want to move the System Attendant mailbox to a database  called DB2 in storage group Second, change the homeMDB value to CN=DB2,CN=Second,CN=InformationStore,CN=SERVER1,CN=Servers,CN=First
Administrative Group,CN=Administrative Groups,CN=First Organization,CN=Microsoft
Exchange,CN=Services,CN=Configuration,DC=mycompany,DC=com The System
Attendant object for each Exchange server islocated in the Configuration container of your Active Directory
forest.
The path to it is:
CN=Microsoft System Attendant,CN=[server name],CN=Servers,CN=[administrative group name],CN=Administrative Groups,CN=[organization name],CN=Microsoft Exchange,CN=Services,CN=Configuration

Note There are several ways to edit the homeMDB value. You can use the Adsiedit tool, the LDP tool, or the LDIFDE tool. Step-by-step instructions for editing the homeMDB value
with LDIFDE are provided at the end of this article.

2. Stop and restart all Exchange services.
3. Run the Mailbox Cleanup Agent against the original database. To access the Cleanup Agent, right-click the Mailboxes object for the database. After you run the Cleanup Agent, the original System
Attendant mailbox should have a red X next to it, indicating that it is no longer connected to an Active Directory object.
4. Right-click the disconnected System Attendant mailbox, and then permanently delete the mailbox. Warning After you complete this step, you cannot move the mailbox back to the original database. To move it back, you must delete the physical database files, and allow a fresh database to be re-created.